Credit Seminar 2014: Toll like Receptor

JibrilYusuf habib¹ ,Dr.Panneer.² ¹Student,Department of Genetic Engineering,School of Bioengineering, Kattankulathur,603-203 Tamil Nadu,India.
²Assistant Professor,Department of Genetic Engineering,School of Bioengineering, Kattankulathur,603-203 Tamil Nadu,India.

Abstract

Toll like receptors (TLR) are a group of pattern recognition receptors that lead to activation of the immune system upon encountering pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). So far, 11 TLR have been described in humans and each recognizes a specific PAMPs. Though TLR mainly expressed in cells of the immune system, are also found in fibroblasts, epithelial and endothelial cells. TLR 3, 7, 8 and 9 are located primarily in the intracytoplasmic compartment whereas other members of the TLR family are expressed extracellularly. Ligation of TLRs by their respective ligands results in activation of Nf-Kb pathway via MyD88 mediated signal transduction process. However, TLR3 is unique in that its immune signals are transduced through MyD88-independent pathway using the adaptor molecule TRIF (Toll/IL-1 receptor domain-containing adaptor inducing IFN-beta). TLR9 is unique as it recognizes the pathogen derived unmethylated dinucleotide motifs (CpG) and triggers the innate immune responses. Aberrant expression of TLRs has been implicated in development of autoimmune diseases such as type I diabetes mellitus and rheumatoid arthritis. The polymorphism in genes encoding TLRs have been postulated to play a role in recurrent infections and development of autoimmune diseases.

Department of Genetic Engineering 
SRM University